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GENERIC NAME: metoprolol
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM
Metoprolol is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent that is used for treating
high blood pressure, heart pain, abnormal rhythms of the heart, and some
neurologic conditions. Examples of beta-adrenergic blockers include
propanolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), and timolol (Blocadren).
Metoprolol blocks the action of the sympathetic nervous system, a portion
of the involuntary nervous system, by blocking beta receptors on
sympathetic nerves. Since the sympathetic nervous system is responsible
for increasing the rate with which the heart beats, by blocking the action
of these nerves metoprolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in
treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms.
Metoprolol also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscle and
thereby lowers blood pressure. By reducing the heart rate and the force of
muscle contraction, metoprolol reduces the need for oxygen by heart
muscle. Since heart pain (angina pectoris) occurs when oxygen demand of
the heart muscle exceeds the supply of oxygen, metoprolol, by reducing the
demand for oxygen, is helpful in treating heart pain. The FDA approved
metoprolol in August 1978.
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
Tablets: 25, 50, and 100 mg. Tablets (extended release): 25, 50, 100, and
200 mg. Injection: 1 mg/ml
Metoprolol is prescribed for patients with high blood pressure
(hypertension). It is also used to treat chest pain (angina pectoris)
related to coronary artery disease. Metoprolol is also useful in slowing
and regulating certain types of abnormally rapid heart rates (tachycardias).
Other uses for metoprolol include the prevention of migraine headache and
the treatment of certain types of tremors (familial or hereditary
Metoprolol should be taken before meals or at bedtime. The dose for
treating hypertension is 100-450 mg daily in single or divided doses.
Angina is treated with 100-400 mg daily in two divided doses. Acute
myocardial infarction is treated with three 5 mg injections administered 2
minutes apart followed by treatment with 50 mg oral metoprolol every 6
hours for 48 hours. After 48 hours, patients should receive 100 mg orally
twice daily for at least 3 months.
This drug should not be used with the following medications because very
serious interactions may occur: mibefradil, psychiatric drugs (phenothiazines
such as chlorpromazine, thioridazine). If you are currently using any of
these medications, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting this
drug. Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all
prescription and nonprescription products you may use, especially of:
alpha-blockers (e.g., prazosin), anti-diabetic drugs (e.g., glipizide,
glyburide, insulin), barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital), calcium channel
blockers (e.g., diltiazem, verapamil), cimetidine, epinephrine, general
anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., indomethacin,
ibuprofen), other heart drugs (e.g., amiodarone, digoxin, propafenone,
quinidine, intravenous lidocaine), other drugs to treat high blood
pressure (e.g., clonidine, hydralazine, reserpine), medications for
overactive thyroid disease (e.g., methimazole, propylthiouracil),
paroxetine, rifamycins (e.g., rifampin), St. John's wort. Check the labels
on all your medicines (e.g., cough-and-cold products, diet aids) because
they may contain ingredients that could increase your heart rate or blood
pressure. Ask your pharmacist about the safe use of those products. Do not
start or stop any medicine without doctor or pharmacist approval.
This medication is a beta-blocker used to treat chest pain (angina) and
high blood pressure. It is also used after an acute heart attack to
improve survival. High blood pressure reduction helps prevent strokes,
heart attacks and kidney problems. This drug works by blocking the action
of certain natural chemicals in your body such as epinephrine on the heart
and blood vessels. This results in a lowering of the heart rate, blood
pressure, and strain on the heart.
This medication may also be used for irregular heartbeats, heart failure,
migraine headache prevention, tremors and other conditions as determined
by your doctor.
HOW TO USE
Take this medication by mouth, with or right after a meal, as directed by
your doctor. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most
benefit from it. To help you remember, use it at the same time(s) each
day. This drug is not effective if you use it only when chest pain or a
migraine headache occurs. It is very important to take this medication
regularly as prescribed to help prevent these conditions. The dosage is
based on your medical condition and response to therapy. It may take one
or two weeks before the full benefit of this drug takes effect. It is
important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most
people with high blood pressure do not feel sick. Do not suddenly stop
taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Your condition may
become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. Refer to the Warning
Metoprolol is generally well tolerated. Side effects include abdominal
cramps, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, insomnia, nausea, depression,
dreaming, memory loss, fever, impotence, lightheadedness, slow heart rate,
low blood pressure, cold extremities, sore throat, and shortness of breath
or wheezing. Metoprolol can aggravate breathing difficulties in patients
with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema.
In patients with existing slow heart rates (bradycardias) and heart blocks
(defects in the electrical conduction of the heart), metoprolol can cause
dangerously slow heart rates, and even shock. Metoprolol reduces the force
of heart muscle contraction and can aggravate symptoms of heart failure.
In patients with coronary artery disease, abruptly stopping metoprolol can
suddenly worsen angina, and occasionally precipitate heart attacks. If it
is necessary to discontinue metoprolol, its dosage should be reduced
gradually over several weeks.
Initiation of high-dose extended release metoprolol in patients undergoing
non-cardiac surgery is associated with bradycardia (slow heart rate),
hypotension, stroke, and death. However, long-term therapy should with
metoprolol should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery.
Impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may
increase the risks of general anesthesia and surgery.
If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or
emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US national poison
hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canadian residents should call their local
poison control center directly. Symptoms of overdose may include unusually
slow heartbeat, severe dizziness, slow or shallow breathing, weakness, or
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember, but not if it is
within 4 hours of the next dose. If it is within 4 hours of the next dose,
skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double
the dose to catch up.
Store at room temperature between 59 and 86 degrees F (between 15 and 30
degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom.
Keep all medicines away from children and pets.
If you have chest pain (angina) or have heart disease (e.g., coronary
artery disease, ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure), do not stop
using this drug without first consulting your doctor. Your condition may
become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. If your doctor decides you
should no longer use this drug, you must gradually decrease your dose
according to your doctor's instructions. When gradually stopping this
medication, it is recommended that you temporarily limit physical activity
to decrease the work on the heart. Seek immediate medical attention if you
develop: worsening chest pain, tightness or pressure in the chest, chest
pain spreading to the jaw/neck/arm, sweating, trouble breathing or
Note : This product information is intended only for residents of the India. Taj Pharmaceuticals Limited, medicines help to treat and prevent a range of conditions—from the most common to the most challenging—for people around the world.